ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1

 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

They are words we use to replace a proper name of a person. We start a sentece with them

> He is a doctor

>We are Good friends

HOW TO USE IT

We use (it) to replace things, objects,Food,animals,etc.

(Hamburger)

>It is delicious

 

 

 

 VERB TO BE

We use the Verb to be as a linking verb, It connects the subject with a complement. The verb To be is used in many cases where there is no action. We use it To describe or to Know the position or placement of people and things


(VERB TO BE) Affirmative form

> i am a good boy/>She is a doctor/>We are nurses

> I am in London/>He is in the bathroom/>They are at Work 

>It is a delicious food/>It is on the table

 (VERB TO BE) Negative form 

> I am not joking with you/>He is not-isn´t at home

> We are not-aren´t In Australia/>It is not-isn´t a good place 

(VERB TO BE) Interrogative form 

>Are you a doctor? = Yes i am-No i am not

>Is she in Canada? = Yes she is-No she isn´t

>Are they good teachers? = Yes they are-No they aren´t

VOCABULARY

>In the car/at work/in the garden/In New York/In La Paz city/in the bathroom/in the living room/

>The carpenter-a carpenter/The electrician-an electrician/The painter-a painter/The waiter-a waiter/The nurse-a nurse/The secretary-a secretary

  

THE DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLE (THE/A/AN)

Articles are words that define a noun as especific or unspecific.

We use the definite article (The) When we want to point or talk about an especific thing:

>Please give me the hammer and the nail

>The book is on the table

We use the indefinite article (a/an) when we want to talk or refer to a general idea

> He wants a toy

> I want an apple pie



THERE ARE SOME EXCEPTIONS USING (THE)

*There is no article with: Names of countries

>Bolivia is a beautiful country/Germany is an honorable country

BUT WE SAY> The United States/The United Kingdom

*There is no Article with: names of languages

>English is a nice language/German is a difficult language

*There is no article with: Breakfast/Lunch/dinner

*There is no article with names: Carlos, Mary, Jack, Julia

*There is no article with years: 1999 was a good year

(We can use the definite article (the) with pural nouns)

>The two towers film is my favorite one from The lord of the Rings Franchise

THINGS TO CONSIDER ABOUT THE INDEFINITE ARTICLES (A/AN)

*The indefinite article takes two forms, we use the word (a) when precedes a word that begins with a consonant.

>I need a new cell phone/I have a brother

We use the word (an) when it precedes a word that begins that a vowel

>We need an adventure in the jungle/He is an artist

THERE ARE SOME EXCEPTIONS USING (A/AN)

*There are some words that start with a consonant but they have a vowel sound: Hour/>ouer/Honest>ónest

>He is comming in an hour/She is an honest person

*There are some words that start with a vowel but they have a consonant sound: Univerity>yuniversity/United States>yunaited 

>She works at a university/She is a United States senator

(We use the indefinite article (a/an) with singular nouns)

>That is a nice car/I want an apple/I have a sister/We need a job

SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS 

Nouns are part of our speech, They refer to people, Animals, objects, food

places, ideas, things, names in general and so on . We have singular nouns and plural nouns

>A dog/two dogs

 

We have Common nouns and proper nouns

>President/Bill Clinton

THINGS TO CONSIDER ABOUT SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS

*If the singular noun ends in s,ss,sh,ch,x,z, add (es) to make it plural  

 >a class-classes/a fish-fishes/bus-buses

*Plural of >Wife-wives/Plural of> wolf-wolves

*If the singular noun ends in (y), and the letter before (y) is a consonant, change the (y) to (ies) to make it plural

>a city-cities/a puppy-puppies

*Don´t follow the previous rule if the letter before  (y) is a vowel, just add (s) to make it plural

>a boys-boys/a ray-rays

*If thesingular noun ends in (o), add (es) to make plural

>a potato-potatoes/a tomato-tomatoes

*EXCEPTIONS TO THE LAST RULE ARE:

>a photo-photos/a piano-pianos

*But you can aply both to the word Volcano=volcanoes-volcanos

*Plural of> cactus-cacti/focus-foci

*If the noun ends in (is) the plural ending is (es)

>An analysis-analises/a crisis-crises

*Some nouns don´t change at all when tey are in plural

>a sheep-sheep/a series-series/a species-species/a deer-deer

*And the plural form of some irregular nouns are: 

>a child-children/man-men/woman-women/tooth-teeth

>foot-feet/mouse-mice/person-people 

 WH QUESTIONS

We use the (WH QUESTIONS) when we require more information about someone or something, and it is not posible to answer just with Yes or No, we have to give more information

 

* When is your birthday?

> My birthday is in Jun



We can use use Wh questions using the verb To be and the auxiliares do and does

*Where do you live?

>I live in Sidney-Australia

 

QUESTIONS WITH (WHAT)

 Asking for information about something

*What is your favorite film?> It is Matrix

*What kind of movies do you like?> I like Sci-Fi movies 

QUESTIONS WITH (WHEN)

Asking about time 

*When is the party?> It is on saturday

*When do you celebrate your party? This saturday night

QUESTIONS WITH (WHERE)

Asking about placement or position

*Where is Jim?> He is at work

*Where does Jim live?> He lives in Berlin

QUESTIONS WITH (WHICH)

Asking about choice

*Which is your favorite color?> It is Black

*Which color do you like?> I like the green one 

QUESTIONS WITH (WHO)

Asking what or wich person or people (subject)

*Who is that guy over there?> His name is Bob

*Who plays with Zara?> Her name is Gina 

QUESTIONS WITH (WHOM)

Asking what or wich person or people (object)

*To whom are you waiting for? To my Friend

*Those flowers come from whom? They come from Mr. White

QUESTIONS WITH (WHOSE)

Asking about ownership

*Whose are this keys?> They belong to Marc

*Whose turn is it? It´s Susan´s turn

QUESTIONS WITH (WHY)

Asking for reason

*Why are you here?> Because i need your help

*Why do you eat that?> Because i love it

QUESTIONS WiTH (HOW)

Asking about manner,asking about condition or quality

*How does it work? I don´t Know

*How is your father? Hes is Ok.

*HOW FAR (distance): How far is the main square?

*HOW LONG (time): How long are you here?

*HOW MANY (quantity/countable): How many dogs do you have?

*HOW MUCH (quantity/uncountable):How much water do you drink?

*HOW OLD (age): How old is your house?

*HOW COME (asking why): How come i can´t get in?

 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

We use possessive adjectives To show possession or ownership of something. When we refer to people , It is more in the sense of relationship than ownership

 >My house is very derty

>I think your brother is here

>He wants to show me his new car 

>She loves her cats

>Bolivia is a nice country, specially for its mountains

>This is our house

>I need their information 

 THERE IS AND THERE ARE

We use (There is and There are) When we want to talk about the existence of something or someone

There is is used for singular nouns and uncountable nouns

There are Is used to talk aboult plural nouns

 >There is a nice little dog here

>There are many people here

 >Are there good hamburgers here?

   Yes there are/No there aren´t

 

 

THERE IS AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

*Uncountable nouns: music/art/happinees/advice/information/mews/furniture/rice/sugar/butter/water/bread/electricity/gas/power/money

>Is there money in the box?: Yes there is/No there isn´t

>There is bread on the table

NEGATIVE FORM

>There is not good information here

>Thare aren´t chocolates to sell

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS  

We use the present continuous tense to talk about an action that is happening that moment

>She is eating a salad

>We are coming home

>I am buying a candy


NEGATIVE FORM

>I am not eating

>It is not working well

>They aren´t playing basketball

QUESTION FORM

>Are you working?: Yes i am/No i am not

>Is she studying?: Yes she is/No she isn´t

>Are they dancing?: Yes they are/No they aren´t

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS (WH QUESTION)

>What are you doing?: I am teaching English

>What is she reading?: a magazine

>Why are they studying in the kitchen?: Because their mother has a meeting in the livingroom 

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

The simple present is a verb tense wich is iused to show repetition, habits of facts. Less commonly, the simple present can be used to talk about scheduled actions in the near future and in some cases actions that are happening in that moment

>I need a friend

>You look tired

>She speaks German quite well

>He travels to Canada every month

>It seems to be difficult to do it

>We buy many vegetables and rice

>They sell good products


 THE THIRD PERSON 

In the third person singular (s,es,ies) is added dependeing the verb 

>If the base form ends in (sh,ch,x,s,z) add (es): teach-teaches

>If the base form ends in a consonant plus (y), chance the (y) to (i) and add (es): worry-worries

>If the base form ends in other letter, add (s)= live-lives

VERBS:


 QUESTION FORM (DO AND DOES)

When we want make question in the simple present tense, we have to use the auxiliary verbs (Do/Does). 

*We use (Do) for the subjects= I/You/We/They

>Do you read a book?: Yes i do/No i don´t

>Do they run every morning?: Yes they do/No they don´t

*We use (Does) For the subjects= He/She/It

>Does he write a letter?: Yes he does/No he doesn´t

>Does it work well?: Yes it does/No it doesn´t 

NEGATIVE FORM (Don´t and Doesn´t)

*We use (don´t) for the subjects= I/You/We/They

>I don´t need your help

>They don´t travel tomorrow  

*We use (doesn´t) for the subjects= He/She/It

>She doesn´t write a letter

>It doesn´t work well  

SIMPLE PRESENT (WH QUESTION)

>Where does she live? She lives in Moscow

>Why do you want to buy a new car? the old one doesn´t work well

>Which meal do you want? I want a delicious hamburger  

 

THIS/THAT/THESE/THOSE

We use these words to refer to people and things(This and These) are used for siituations and experiences that are close to the speaker or very close in time. We use (that and those) to refer to people, situations, things and experiences that are a bit far to the speaker in time or physically

*This and that (Singular)/These and Those (Plural)

>This is a nice dog/that is my brother

>This is a great time/That was a great time

>I like these jackets/I need those books

>These are nice trees/Those nice trees are abit far

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE AND THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS


PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND SIMPLE PRESENT    

We can use the Present continuous and the simple present in one sentence to describe and action that is done with a purpose

>I am buying food to cook the dinner

>We are traveling to Bolivia because we want to visit the Salt Flat in Uyuni

>I am working hard to become a millonare

>She is learning german because she wants to live in Gerrmany

POSSESSIVE NOUNS

A possessive noun is a noun that possesses somethig. A possessive noun is formed by adding an apostrophe+s to the noun, or if the noun is plural and alredy ends in s only apostrophe neesds to be added

>The boy´s pencil is on the floor

>The cat´s toy was missing

>Is this Jeremy´s book?

>Those are the menbers´ votes

>The women´s clothes/ These are the children´s toys 

SUBJECT PRONOUN AND OBJECT PRONOUN

The subject pronouns replaces a noun as the subject of the sentence and we start most of the sentences with them.

The object pronoun is a type of personal pronoun that is normally used as the grammatical object, they receive the action of the verb

>Tell them to come in please

>They need us in this moment

>I buy her very good products

>It hits me strongly

>She travels with him

>Buy it now

IMPERATIVE VERBS

Imperative verbs are verbs that create an imperative sentence, this sentences give orders or comands. When reading an imperative sentence, it sounds like the speaker is bossing someone around

>Don´t do that









THE PAST TENSE OF BE

The main diffrence between the past tense and the present tense is wheter the action you are desccribing ocurred now or in the past.

>I was a huge fan of Liverpool football team

>You were her best friend

>He was here yesterday

>She was at the hospital 2 days ago

>It was working well this morning

>We were very comfortable here

>They were very busy last night in the restaurant

NEGATIVE FORM

>I was not/wasn´t there yester day

>You  were not/weren´t with us at the party

>She was not/wasn´t ready for the test

Question form

>Were you invited to the party? Yes i was/No i wasn´t

>Was he in Mexico the last year? Yes he was/No he wasn´t

>Were they teachers at the school

VERB TO BE WH QUESTIONS

>Why were they here? because they needed money

>How was the weather? It was very good

>Who was in the office yesterday?

THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

The simple past  is a verb tense that is used to talk about things or facts that happened or existed before now. We use the past form of the verb to make sentences, there are 2 types of verbs to use in the past tense, (regular verbs and irregular verbs)

>I took a warm shower this morning

>You Traveled 404 Kilometers just to see me

>He worked in that company for over 20 years

>She fainted in the midle on the classroom 

>It flew from Chicago to London

>We chose the difficult way

>They abandoned the project


NEGATIVE FORM

We use the auxiliary verb (didn´t) to form the past tense

> She didn´t come on time to the meeting

>We didn´t buy that car yesterday, It was too expensive

>I didn´t want to be there at that time 

QUESTION FORM 

We use the auxiliary verb (did) to make questions in simple past tense 

>Did you see that strange object in the sky?: Yes i did/No i didn´t

>Did they need our help last night?: Yes they did/No they didn´t

>Did it work well during the morning? Yes it did/No it didn´t .

SUGGESTIONS WITH  (LET´S)

(Let´s) is the short form of (let us) and we use it in informal situations to make a suggestion which include ourselves

>It´s noon  let´s have lunch

>Let´s go to the party

>Let´s not stay at home

*We use (let) to talk about permission, (let) is followed byan object and an infinitive without to:

>Please let me be here

>She let me come here

>Let me help you please

THE FUTURE WITH BE GOING TO

We use be going to when we have a plan or an  intention to do something in the future

> I started a new business, I am going to make a lot of money



>Gina won the lottery 3 days ago, She says, she is going to buy a Porshe and a new house

*We also use (be going to) to make a prediction about the future, our prediction is based on present evidence.

>The sky is very black,it´s going to snow.

>It´s 8:30¡¡ you are going to miss your train

*NEGATIVE FORM

>He is not going to travel this afternoon

>We are not going to have lunch at noon

>I am not going to need your help tomorrow 

QUESTION FORM

> Is he going to be here at 5?: Yes he is /No is isn´t

>Are they going to bring the food for dinner?: yes they are/No they aren´t

>Are you going to buy a new car?: Yes i am/no i am not

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME

*SINCE: From a particular time in the past until a later time, or until now

> I am waiting here since yesterday 

*FOR: Used to show an amount of time

> He is going to travel for 3 years

*AGO: Back in the past, back in time from the present

>The dinosaurs died out 65 millon years ago 

*BEFORE: At or during a time earlier than now

>She is always at home before than us 

*TO: Used when saying the time, to about the stated hour

>It´s a quarter to

*TO: Until a particular time, pointing to the end of a particular period of time

>We work from 11am to 6pm 

*PAST: Telling the time

>It´s five past ten

*FROM: Used to show the time when something starts

>The museum is open from 10am to 5pm every day except monday 

*UNTIL/TILL: Up to(that time)

>We waited the merchandise until/till noon

*BY: Not later than, at or before

>She told me that would be here by 6pm 

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

A preposition of place is a preposition which is used to refer to a place where something or someone is located

 *AT: Use (at) to show an exact position or particular place, Table (diner), events, or when you want to talk about a place where you are to do somenthing typical (watch a film, study, work)

>I met her at the bus station

>Sit at the table please

>we had a great time at the party last night

>I need to be at work at 9

>I visited jane at hospital

>You have to be at the school at 7:30

*IN: We use the preposition (in) when we want to say that someone or something are inside a place,object or cities

>I watch tv in the living room

>I live in New York but i need to be in London next saturday

>She is in the picture

>I read good news in the newspaper 

>They are in the taxi

>She was sick yesterday, i think she is in hospital 

>He is studying Languages in school

*ON:We can use (on)  we use (on)The book is on the desk to say that something  is in a position above something else and touching it, if something is on the left or on the right, it is also used to talk about some methods of traveling and to talk about radio and tv

>Look at the picturte on the wall

> The book is on the desk

>Put a smile on your face

>The shop is on the left

>My apartment is on the first floor

>I love traveling on a plane

>My favorite program is on the Radio

*BY/NEXT TO/BESIDE/NEAR/CLOSE TO: Not far away in distance

>The girl who is by the house

*BETWEEN: In or into the space which separates two places, people or objects

>My house is between the green two floors house and the super market

*BEHIND: At the back (of) 

>I hung my coat behind the door

*IN FRONT OF: Further forward than someone or something else

>She started talking to the man in front of her

*UNDER:Lower than (or covered by) something else

>The dog is under the table

*BELOW: Lower than something else

>The plane is just below the cloud

*OVER: Above or higher than something else, sometimes one thing covers the other, more than, across from one side to the other, overcoming an obstacle

>She held the umbrella over both of us

>We have to pay over 100$

>I walked over the bridge

>She jumped over the gate

*ABOVE: Higher than something else

>Read the instructions above

*ACROSS: From one side to other of something with clear limits. getting to the other side

>We traveled across the lake

*THROUGH: To go from one point to another

>They walked slowly through the woods

*TO: In the direction of 

>I have to go to my house

*FROM: Used to show the place where something or someone starts

>What time does she arrive from London?






Entradas populares